Thomas and Lucy: a Removal Order

Historic church photographed from inside modern building

If you know Norwich you may recognise this scene, captured from The Forum.  The 15th century church opposite is St Peter Mancroft.  The significance of this scene for me was not only the reflections of the super-modern structure juxtaposed with the historic church, but also in the fact that here I was with my son, inside the modern structure in the year 2019, looking out on that ancient church inside which, 230 years earlier, my 4x great grandparents were married, and six years after that my 3x great grandfather Thomas was baptised.

All of this is relevant to the tale that follows. It follows on from my last post about the operation of ‘settlement’ as the key concept in dealing with the poor.

I was in Norwich visiting my son, spending each evening with him and passing the days while he was studying, at the county archives or walking around the churches and parishes of significance to my Norwich ancestors.  Amongst others, I was on the trail of the aforementioned Thomas and his wife Lucy: my 3x great grandparents.  After marriage they settled in another Norwich parish: St Martin at Oak.  Yet the baptism records of their children were puzzling: five children born in St Martin at Oak between 1819 and 1828, then a daughter born two hundred miles away in Fewston, Yorkshire in 1830, another son back in St Martin at Oak in 1832 and then seven more children in Fewston and Leeds between 1834 and 1846.

I understood why they had moved to Yorkshire.  Thomas was a weaver: the very trade upon which Norwich’s wealth had been built; and yet even by the time of Thomas’s apprenticeship weaving was on the decline in Norwich, and with that the city itself.  Quite simply, Norwich was unable to compete with the new spinning and weaving mills located in other parts of the country alongside fast flowing water and ready coal supplies.  And so Thomas traded in his cottage industry lifestyle, working long hours at his loom beside the trademark long weavers’ window on the upper floor of the family home, for a position spinning flax at West House Mill at Blubberhouses within the parish of Fewston, about eight miles from Harrogate.

Long window in Norwich typical of traditional weavers' houses

Typical Norwich weavers’ window

It’s known that the owners of West House Mill toured workhouses and charitable institutions in London and other large towns in search of hundreds of apprentice children, just as Thomas’s orphaned contemporary Robert Blincoe (‘The Real Oliver Twist’) had been ‘recruited’ around 1800.  In fact, they hold the dubious honour of being amongst the first to do that.  It’s reasonable to suppose, then, that Thomas might have been persuaded to relocate to the mill as an ‘engine minder’ while the owners were on a recruitment drive in Norwich.  Reasonable, too, to imagine that all the benefits of this new life were highlighted, and little of the reality.  The fact is that West House Mill was a huge, noisy, five-storeyed mill in a remote position in the Washburn Valley on the southern edge of the Yorkshire Dales.  The working day, starting at 5am and ending sixteen hours later with perhaps just an hour’s break for rest and a midday meal, was hard-going and repetitive.  The mill depended on the slave labour of the pauper children, effectively imprisoned there until they reached the age of twenty-one: it was a place of misery.  While workers’ cottages were provided and the beauty of the countryside undisputed, the culture shock for Lucy and Thomas, used to the milder climate, the facilities of Norwich, the tranquillity of detailed work at the handloom and family nearby would be immense.

There was very little risk for the mill owners in employing Thomas.  In accordance with the law, it’s almost certain that he left Norwich with a Settlement Certificate.  Ever since the 1662 Settlement Act these certificates had facilitated migration by serving as a guarantee from the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the ‘home’ parish to those of the intended ‘host’ parish that, in the event of difficulties resulting in an application for poor relief, the home parish would pay the costs of ‘Removal’.

Early 19th century engraving of large flax mill

West House Mill at Blubberhouses, Fewston, Yorkshire

Two days after taking my ‘ancient and modern’ photo I was back in The Forum.  Alongside several restaurants, the building is home to the Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library which includes the Norfolk Heritage Centre.  Here, I came across a reference to Thomas, Lucy and their first four children: a Removal Order dated 1826.  This surprised me on two counts.  First, based on the baptism records I had believed their initial migration took place between 1828 and 1830; and second, if my family had been removed from Fewston back to St Martin at Oak in Norwich, what was the reason for this, and why had they returned there in time for the 1830 baptism of their sixth child?

The detail of the Removal Order was even more unexpected.  In 1826 Thomas, Lucy and their four named children (6 years to 3 months) were removed from St Martin at Oak, where they had ‘lately intruded themselves contrary to the law relating to the settlement of the poor, and that they had there become chargeable’.  By decision of two Justices of the Peace they were to be returned to the last legal place of settlement, and that was Fewston in Yorkshire.

I confess that until this point I had misunderstood the full draconian extent of the application of ‘settlement’ in the operation of relief of the poor.  While fully understanding the rules for acquisition of settlement rights in a new parish, my understanding had been that an individual would always retain rights acquired by birthright.  In other words, that the granting of new settlement rights was a privilege and an additional set of rights.  Raising my eyes from the index, my eyes lighted once again on St Peter Mancroft, right outside the huge modern windows of The Forum.  Here Thomas had been baptised.  Here his existence had first been recorded.  In trying to do his best to provide for his family Thomas had lost his right to live in his home town and was henceforth banished to a noisy, remote mill two hundred miles distant.  My ‘ancient and modern’ photograph now assumed a new significance: loss and injustice.  Injustice because the empty promises made to him cost the mill owners nothing, while believing them had cost Thomas and Lucy a great deal.

Sadly the Settlement Examination papers (I referred to this stage of the process in my last post) have not survivied, nor have the equivalent papers for the other end of the process in Fewston.  These would have given me a lot more information about dates of migration.  However, thanks to this Removal document I now know that Thomas and Lucy first moved to Fewston earlier than previously thought – probably around 1825.  I now understand that the Certificates of Settlement were time-limited.  As soon as Thomas had acquired legal rights of settlement in Fewston – presumably by being hired continually for more than a year and a day – the certificate ceased to have value.  Hiring Thomas may have been risk-free for the owners of the West House Mill, but for Thomas and Lucy it was a one-way ticket.  We might imagine that they tried to make it work, but finally were so unhappy that they decided to return to Norwich; and by then it was too late.  All previous settlement rights had been erased.  On 29th April, 1826, just three months after the Norwich birth of their fourth child, the Removal Order was signed for their forced return to Fewston.

Thomas and Lucy did not go quietly.  They were back in St Martin at Oak for the baptism of a fifth child by 1828; in Fewston for the sixth in 1830; possibly (according to a note on the parish accounts) back again briefly in 1831; and in 1832 a final child was baptised in St Martin at Oak. Between 1834 and 1843 six more children were baptised, all at Fewston, and the 1841 census shows them here, living in workers’ accommodation.  Thomas, formerly a skilled handloom weaver, is now an ‘engine minder’.  The six oldest children, aged twenty to eleven are all ’employed at the flax mill’.  I strongly suspect that it was through realisation that this would be the inevitable fate of all their children, and a desire to avoid this, that Lucy and Thomas were so desperate to escape.  It is notable, however, that the eventual ‘acceptance of their fate’ coincides with the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, with its central focus on the workhouse in dealing with the poor.  Faced with trying to make a go of it in Norwich but the likelihood of the workhouse for the entire family if they failed to do so, Thomas and Lucy seem, reluctantly, to have chosen Fewston.  They would now live out their days in Yorkshire, relocating to Leeds by 1846, but my guess is that their hearts remained in Norwich.

Relief of the poor: Settlement

The threat of ‘the workhouse’ loomed large over our nineteenth century ancestors.  Even if they worked hard and were able to provide well for their families, there was always the possibility of accidents (even fatal ones), disability, sickness, failure of harvests… and therefore no longer being able to work.  The workhouse regime began with the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 and was formally abolished only in 1930, yet it wasn’t the first legislative arrangement for dealing with ‘paupers’ and ‘vagrants’.  Prior to 1834, relief of the poor was based on the 1601 Act for the Relief of the Poor and the Act of Settlement of 1662.

There are two important issues at the heart of all this.  The first is that relief of the poor was a parish matter.  This had less to do with any sense of ‘Christian duty towards those less fortunate’ than with the fact that alongside the spiritual role we associate today with the local church, the parish was also the local administrative unit, responsible for collecting monies and ensuring the smooth-running of the local area.

The next important issue follows on from this.  Since local people had to cough up the money to provide for the poor, the parish was at pains to ensure that only genuinely local poor people were eligible.  This led to the concept of ‘settlement’.

Even if we say that essentially, a person had the right of settlement in the parish in which he or she was born, there still had to be some acknowledgement of migration, and a system for allowing the acquisition of settlement for those genuinely moving into a new parish for sound reasons.  It was the 1662 Act (and later amending Acts) that introduced the rules under which a newcomer acquired such legal rights.  These were:

  • holding parish office
  • paying the parish rate
  • renting property worth more than £10 p.a. or paying taxes on a property worth more than £10 p.a.
  • being resident in the parish for 40 days, after having given the authorities 40 days’ notice before moving into the parish
  • being currently apprenticed to a master in the parish
  • having served a full seven-year apprenticeship to a settled resident
  • being hired continually by a settled resident for more than a year and a day
  • having previously received poor relief in that parish

However, the above rules applied only to men and unmarried women, and there were different rules for children born within wedlock and those born illegitimately:

Much as the need to restrict relief of the poor to genuinely local people was real, suffice to say there was plenty of scope in all of the above for trickery, twisting the rules, cruel, draconian decisions and absurd outcomes. It became common practice, for example, to look for masters outside the parish when placing a child as a parish apprentice… so that in case of problems the child would have ceased to be a burden on the home parish.  Over time, this extended to sending children as young as seven years old to growing industrial towns in the north, often many miles from home.  Robert Blincoe, for example, believed to have been the real-life inspiration for Dickens’s Olver Twist (see above link), was sent from London to Nottingham.  Later, he was transferred to a parish in Derbyshire, where the unscrupulous mill owner built the apprentice living quarters just across a stream in the adjacent parish. In other words, the profits and benefits of the mill and the children’s labour went to the owner in one parish, while the burden of providing for their burials and other disablement expenses fell to another.  Another ploy was the avoidance of settlement rights after employment for a year and a day by employing migrant workers only on short term contracts.  And the different arrangements for men, women, and legitimate / illegitimate children could mean that in times of genuine hardship the man’s settlement was deemed to be where he had worked; his cohabiting but unmarried ‘wife’s’ settlement was where she had been born – or even in the parish of another, estranged, husband; while their illegitimate children would have settlement in their own place of birth and those aged over seven then apprenticed to masters throughout the country.

The means by which such decisions were made was the Settlement Examination, a legal document drawn up pursuant to those rules outlined above.  Generally, the trigger for a Settlement Examination was the application for poor relief by the person who had fallen on hard times.  The examination focused on the personal, employment and ownership histories of the individual, or if a married woman, of her husband, late husband or absconded husband.  You can read more about Settlement on the London Lives website – a general overview; it doesn’t matter if you don’t have London roots – and there is also a separate page about Settlement Examinations.  On both pages there are links to examples of Settlement Examination documents, or you might like to follow the case of one person’s experience:

Susanna Flood:
Settlement Examination 1
Removal Order 1
Petition and Appeal
Settlement Examination 2
Removal Order 2

If you come across Settlement Examination documentation in your own ancestry it will give you valuable information about family members and any migration history.  In the pre-census era this can help you add detail to your ancestors’ lives.

Explore my links!

I’m taking a break during September, and will be back here on 1st October.

Before I go, I’d like to invite you to explore my Links, which I’ve been working on over the last couple of months.  You’ll find them at the top of this page, on the top menu bar.

Click on Links (either right here or at any time from the top menu bar) and you’ll find a page of categories.  Each category has a dedicated page with more information that I hope you’ll find useful.  I’m adding to these pages all the time and I do use them myself as a library of the sort of information that always comes in handy.  The categories are:

Essential general websites for genealogists includes sites like GENUKI and A Vision of Britain through time, which are invaluable for homing in on a locality and getting essential information.

Websites with free access to transcripts and databases of essential genealogical records includes sites like FreeBMD, FreeCen, FreeReg, FamilySearch and GRO, where you can look up transcripts or use indexes to records free of charge.

Online dictionaries, glossaries of useful terms, etc includes lists of old medical terms, occupational names, Latin phrases and a useful timeline of Victorian legislation.

Websites providing online maps includes links to lots of different types of map that I find useful when exploring my ancestors’ lives and I think you will too.

Social and political history includes links to various websites specialising in a particular historical period that will be of use when researching and understanding ancestors’ lives.

DNA includes a list of my own blogs about DNA for genealogy, together with other websites and online resources I’ve referred to within them.  It’s a work in progress.  I’ll be adding more to this in the autumn as I publish more posts on this subject.

There is also a page for each of several cities of particular interest to me: Leeds, York, Norwich, London, and a page with links to regional Family History Societies, again just for the areas of interest to me, but an Internet search will lead you to something suited to your own needs.

I hope you’ll find the information in these pages useful.  It’s intended as a general resource so please do feel free to refer whenever you need to.  If you spot a gap do let me know.

As mentioned in my last post, I’ll be starting work on a two-year Advanced Genealogy and Family History course in September.  To enable me to focus fully on that, when I return to blogging in October, I’ll be reducing my output from three posts per month to two: on the 1st and 15th of each month.

I do occasionally post little extras and share articles via my Facebook page.  So if you’re on Facebook please click to follow the link below, and like/follow English Ancestors.

Wishing you a good September.

A Secretary Hand survival guide

Handwriting dated 1678

Unless we limit ourselves to transcripts of documents, sooner or later every genealogist has to confront the challenge of archaic handwriting styles.  Later eighteenth and nineteenth century handwriting styles generally pose no difficulty for me (although I’m aware from online genealogy groups that this is not universal) but earlier than that it’s a whole new ball game.

Developments in handwriting were not an accidental process.  Different styles of writing were devised to meet changing needs.  Hence ‘Textura’, the beautiful calligraphic script we know from illuminated manuscripts, was very formal and tidy, but the clearly separated letters were themselves composed of separate strokes, the pen being lifted from the page after each stroke.  Beautiful it may have been, but the process was very slow and painstaking.

The evolution of cursive handwriting in the middle ages was a significant development, making the process of writing quicker and more efficient.  Formed with as few strokes of the pen as possible, the whole purpose of the new cursive texts was the speedy copying of official documents or records.  The earliest cursive script we’re likely to see in parish registers is ‘Secretary Hand’.  Imported to England from France and Italy in the fourteenth century, its use became widespread in the late fifteenth to seventeenth centuries – exactly the period when the keeping of registers of baptisms, marriages and burials became mandatory.

The handwriting example above is definitely one of the easier examples I’ve seen.  It was written by my 8xG grandfather in 1678.

The difficulties of reading Secretary hand can include:

  • It was popular at the same time as other cursive scripts, including ‘Italic’ (which I find easier to read) although the two hands were used for different purposes.  By the mid seventeenth century a hybrid style developed incorporating aspects of these two and what was to become the (much easier to read) eighteenth century ‘running’ hand.  We’re likely to see examples of all of this as we look at parish registers and other documents of the period and on occasion we will need to try to decipher them all.
  • There were of course unique individual handwriting styles and idiosyncrasies, just as we have today
  • The formation of certain letters can actually look like other letters to our modern eyes
  • Writers still used the now obsolete Anglo-Saxon letter y, or þ (known as ‘thorn’) to represent a ‘th’ sound, the long s, which we can easily confuse with an f, and sometimes the Middle English letter ȝ, easily confused with a z but in fact known as yogh, and used where modern English has gh or y.
  • Words may be abbreviated or contracted
  • Some syllables or letter combinations were replaced with hieroglyphs
  • Writers were not consistent in the use of the above, even in the same document or the same sentence
  • Spellings were not uniform, and certainly were not the same as today’s
  • In the case of surnames and placenames, the scribe may have written down what he ‘heard’

However, there is lots of help available online.  I’ve put together a list of resources from respected bodies you might find useful when trying to decipher Secretary and other sixteenth and seventeenth century scripts:
Basic guidance, abbreviations and editorial conventions for reading Secretary Hand from Folger Shakespeare Library
Recognising different letter forms of medieval scripts from University of Nottingham Manuscripts and Special Collections
Secretary Hand alphabet examples from FamilySearch

Or if you’re really determined, and have the time to devote to it, here are a few online courses, made freely available:
English Handwriting Online 1500-1700 from University of Cambridge
Palaeography tutorial & exercises from University of Oxford
Palaeography: reading old handwriting 1500 – 1800: A practical online tutorial from The National Archives
And finally:
Early Modern Scottish Paleaography: a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) that I’ve just completed in preparation for commencing the Advanced Genealogy Diploma.  The benefit of this course is that the basics of paleography are introduced via a series of mini ‘programmes’ (videos) by Dr Lionel Glassey.  These are excellent and perfectly targetted for the general interest audience – although I’m still finding the older Secretary Hand difficult to read.  (I’m hoping this will improve with practise, since this is a major part of the first year of my forthcoming course.)  The MOOC is provided via futurelearn by the University of Glasgow.  The paleography is intertwined with Scottish history, and is therefore doubly useful for those with Scottish roots.  However, these sections can be speed-read if you wish.  If you do have Scottish roots you might be interested in using your new skills to help in transcribing the kirk session records of Govan Old.  There is a link to learn more about this right at the end of the course.

My Ahnentafel based filing system

In my last post we looked at the Ahnentafel system.  I outlined how it works and how I use it sometimes in printed family histories.

However, my main use of this system is purely administrative.  I use it to organise information on my computer – and I find it invaluable.

This is how it works:

  • I have a folder for Family History.  Within that folder there are some miscellaneous files.
  • However, most of the information is attributed to the appropriate direct ancestor and stored in a filing system based on the Ahnentafel system.
  • Each folder has the ancestor’s Ahnentafel number followed by name and birth/death years.
  • To make it easier to home in quickly on the correct folder I include the generational prefix.  So I am 01_001, my Dad is 02_002, my Mum is 02_003, my grandparents are 03_004 to 03_007.  My great grandparents are all within the prefix 04, GG grandparents within the prefix 05, and so on.
  • Putting all of the above into practice, a typical folder will have a title like 09_368 William Wade 1702-1783.
  • The folder is created when the ancestor is found.  Inclusion of dates is advantageous for distant ancestors, partly because naming patterns often mean there are ancestors over consecutive generations of the same name, and partly because I don’t remember the name of every distant ancestor and which generation they fit into.
  • Whenever I have a new piece of evidence (downloads, photos, etc), I store it in the appropriate file for that direct ancestor.  Remember that you won’t be able to see any evidence linked to your online tree on Ancestry, etc, if you let your paid subscription lapse.  You may also have downloaded evidence from other online sources, or you may have family tree software on your computer.
  • Some of the info I have relates to siblings / other children of the family who are not my direct ancestors.  For these, I store them with one or other of their parents.  If one of these people has an interesting history with a lot of additional documents I create a sub file for them within the parent’s file.

So here’s a snippet of what it looks like when I have xplorer open on my desktop.  On the left you see some of the folders for my 8th generation (5xG grandparents) and on the right I have opened one of the folders so you can see the kind of information I store in there.

Screen grab of computer filing system based on the Ahnentafel numbering system

You may wonder why I did this.  It’s true that it involved an initial investment of time.  However, it has paid dividends ever since.  I can now quickly store and retrieve any digital file connected with any of my ancestors or their close family members.

I find this better than just having a handful of surname files, such as one for the Wades, one for the Thompsons, and so on.  In part this is because it’s so much easier to retrieve information from a smaller folder – there could be a LOT of information to plough through to find the right file amongst all the others in a general ‘Wade’ file.  This also worked better for me in keeping consistency with women who have changed names upon marriage.  A filing system focusing on group surnames could ‘lose’ married women who started out with their father’s surname and changed to their husband’s.  My system means that every woman has her own file in her birth name, and any changes upon marriage can be accommodated by simply including the correct files in her folder, regardless of what name is used and indeed however many times she changes her name.

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I haven’t mentioned Lockdown for a while, but just a quick note to say I hope you are all well, and if any of you are in areas that have gone into localised Lockdown, keep safe.

The Ahnentafel system

Have you come across the Ahnentafel genealogical numbering system?

‘Ahnentafel’, meaning ‘ancestor table’ in German, is an ascending numbering system for ordering and identifying ancestors.  Starting with the Subject of the tree (i.e. you, or the person/ descendant whose ancestry is being shown) and working backwards, every direct ancestor is given a number.  The Subject is number 1, his/her father is 2, mother is 3, paternal grandfather 4, paternal grandmother 5, maternal grandparents 6 and 7, and so on.

A quick Internet search will return many examples of Ahnentafel templates and charts, some circular, some with colours, some completed, for example with the royal family’s details, some looking very much like a regular pedigree chart but with the addition of numbers….  This one from Lost Cousins is the one that introduced me to Ahnentafel in the first place.

The features of the Ahnentafel chart are:

  • It starts with a Subject / descendant and works backwards through the generations
  • It shows only the direct line – no siblings, no other children
  • Apart from the Subject – number 1 on the chart, who may be male or female – the direct male ancestors are always even numbers and the direct female ancestors are always odd numbers

Calculating each ancestor’s number
Thanks to the elegance of mathematics, the correct number can easily be allocated to an ancestor, even if they are many generations in the past, simply by following this simple formula:

  • To obtain any person’s father’s number, anywhere on your ancestry, double that younger person’s number.
  • To obtain any person’s mother’s number, double their own number as above, then add 1 to that figure.  The mother will therefore always be one number higher than the father.

Hence:
You are number 1
Your mother is number 3   [1×2 =2 +1 =3]
Her father (your grandfather) is 3×2 =6 and her mother (your maternal grandmother) is 3×2 =6 +1 =7
Your maternal grandmother’s mother (your mother’s mother’s mother) is therefore 7×2 =14 +1 =15
Your mother’s mother’s mother’s father is therefore 15×2 =30.
His father is 60.  His father is 120 and the mother is 121, and so on.

This arrangement of numbers of course applies to everyone’s tree in the same way.  But be aware if you’re working on your cousin’s tree that the arrangement of numbers will not necessarily be the same.  If your cousin is the child of your mother’s brother, your maternal grandparents will be your cousin’s paternal grandparents.  In other words, although half of your trees will be identical, the arrangement on the Ahnentafel will be completely different.

As you see, using this system, provided you have already calculated the Ahnentafel number of the closer generation (which you will, since we always work back through time), then you can always work out very easily the Ahnentafel number of that ancestor’s parents.

Generation numbers
We have 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great grandparents, 16 GG grandparents, and so on.  The number of direct ancestors doubles with each generation.  To make it easier to see at a glance in which generation an ancestor is located we can choose to include a prefix to the Ahnentafel number.  In the worked example above, my mother’s mother’s mother’s father is 30.  As my GG grandfather he comes within the fifth generation, and I could therefore indicate him with the reference number 5: 30 instead of just with the A-number 30.

Table showing organisation of generations by Ahnentafel numbers

Why would you use this system?
It is undoubtedly easier to pinpoint an ancestor at A-number 418 or 9: 418 than to describe him as the subject’s mother’s father’s mother’s father’s father’s father’s mother’s father – or even to use the shorthand of that: MFMFFFMF.  But of course it will only be easier if we’re using it in communication with someone else who understands the system!  You may, like me, be familiar with the glazing over of the eyes of pretty much any family member if you stray too far into the detail of a fascinating (obviously!) ancestral tale.  I know that if I started to refer to my ancestors using numerical code or possibly worse, using long strings of M’s and F’s, those glazed expressions would quickly transform into something questioning my sanity.  Generally speaking, ‘my 6x great grandfather’ will more than suffice!

Even on paper, because of the doubling of ancestors that must be squeezed onto the page with every new generation, there’s a limit to how many generations can be included on one page.  Even if you’re able to print out on A3 paper, the sheer numbers of ancestors to fit in the additional columns will mean only a couple of extra generations at most can be added.  The Lost Cousins example linked to above includes 3xG grandparents (six generations total), requiring space for 32 names in the final column.  Two more generations would require space for 128 5xG grandparents in that final column – and I have identified several 10x and 12x great grandparents!

The above problems can of course be overcome by effectively starting a new table, appropriately re-numbered, at each 3xG grandparent.  This would get you back to eleven generations, or your 8xG grandparents and would be less unwieldy.  In this way, I find Ahnentafel a useful system to include in a printed family history, making it easy to pinpoint certain ancestors when interesting stories emerge.  However, I have also adapted Ahnentafel in my own information organisation system.  I’ll write about that in my next post.

DNA for genealogy: Where to test?

IMPORTANT: This is not a post about testing for paternity issues, etc.  The courts have very specific requirements for DNA testing to be used in legal hearings.  You can find out about that on the Get a DNA Test page of the government’s own website.

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Which companies offer autosomal DNA testing for genealogy?
Having spent the last few weeks introducing the topic of DNA testing for genealogy, the purpose of this post is to signpost you to the five main companies used for genetic genealogy testing by genealogists and family historians in the UK.  Other companies are available and if you come across them you can research and assess their benefits for yourself.  However from my knowledge, gained through personal experience and through membership of online discussion groups, these are the companies most genealogists currently use.  I have no connection with any of these companies other than as a user, and am receiving no benefit whatsoever for including any of them in this review.

If you’d like to take a DNA test to help with your family tree building, follow the links to each company, look at their websites including privacy statements and terms & conditions, and then make your decision.

You might also like to look at the following DNA Weekly Best Ancestry DNA Tests review, which is updated regularly.

I would also recommend joining an online discussion group, such as DNA Help for Genealogy on Facebook.  There, you’ll find people of all levels of understanding from complete beginner to advanced.  You can ask questions, including recommendations and preferences for the various testing companies as well as practical questions when your results are in.  Somewhere down the line you’ll find you can actually start to answer other people’s questions too. 🙂

Here are the five testing companies, linked to their websites:
Ancestry DNA
Family Tree DNA
Living DNA – UK based, partnered with FindMyPast
My Heritage DNA – my experience is that more European testers use this company
23 and Me

How do they differ?
I’ve put together this table showing features of each testing company that are considered important by genealogists.

Table showing features of five different DNA testing companies used by genealogists

Notes
When considering the differences between these five testing companies and the advantages or disadvantages of each it’s perhaps useful to bear in mind that two of the companies (Ancestry and MyHeritage) are primarily genealogy websites, providing tree-building, a huge number of record sets, and a DNA testing service that is increasingly dove-tailed into that.  One of the companies (Living DNA) has partnered exclusively with FindMyPast.  Together, these UK-focused companies have the potential to provide a similar ‘seamless’ service as for the previous two, with a lot of new developments in the pipeline.  The final two companies (Family Tree DNA or ‘FTDNA’ and 23andMe) are primarily DNA research and testing companies.  They have the facility for uploading or linking to family trees but have no record sets, etc that will help you to develop your trees.  However, their DNA features and tools are often more sophisticated.

Uploading to other sites: You will see that Ancestry and 23andMe do not permit uploads to their site, but the remaining three companies do.  Uploading will enable you to access the tester database but will not provide use of enhanced features of the test (e.g. Living’s 21 UK-based geographical origin locations feature).  Although uploading is free there will be a charge if you want to access additional tools.  If you’re looking for biological parents it will help you to have your data on all of these sites.

AutoCluster tool: This is a tool available on MyHeritage.  It groups together your DNA matches in colour-coded groups likely to be descended from the same common ancestor.

Ethnicities: A lot of people take a DNA test purely for the fun of seeing their ethnic origins breakdown.  Learning about your ethnicities is exciting but it’s only an estimate and still a work in progress.  From time to time as more people test or as algorithms are amended, your ethnicities estimate will change.

Chromosome browsers: This is a visual tool that enables you to see precisely where you and another person match.  You will be able to see which chromosomes, whereabouts on that chromosome, the length of segments and their start and end points.  It is really useful to have this information and once you’ve been able to allocate a segment to a specific common ancestor it will help with identifying whereabouts on your family tree new matches will connect.  I will do a post about this in autumn 2020.

Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial testing: This is covered in my previous blogpost on deep ancestral DNA testing.  You will see that of the companies included on the above table, only Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) offers testing for these types of DNA.  However, 23andMe and Living DNA provide Y-chromosome and mitochondrial haplogroups as part of the autosomal test.

Note about 23 and Me tests: Ancestry + Traits is the basic test, providing an insight into which of your traits (e.g. aversion to coriander, curly hair) can be traced to your ancestry.  Health + Ancestry test is more expensive, providing insights into your predisposition of developing certain health conditions.  It is not necessary for our family research purposes, but is there as an option should you want it.

GEDmatch: This is not a testing company, but a very useful website where you can upload your DNA test results regardless of which company you tested with.  It therefore provides you with a much wider pool of testers and potential DNA matches.  It is free to use although payment is required to access certain more advanced tools.  I will do a post about this in autumn 2020.

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This concludes my series of ‘introduction to DNA testing for genealogy’ posts.  I hope they have helped you to decide if DNA testing is for you and if so, what are the next steps you need to take to make it happen. Please note that every effort has been taken to ensure all the details provided are correct, but you should refer to the different companies’ websites before making any decisions.

We’ll now take a break from DNA testing but I do have more posts planned for the future that will help you to make practical use of your DNA results.  As mentioned above, these will include Chromosome browsers and GEDmatch, but a number of other DNA topics too.

*****

Edited August 2020
My posts about DNA are aimed at complete beginners and aim to provide information in manageable chunks, each post building on previous ones. Click [here] to read all of them in order, or to dip in and out as you wish. You’ll also find lots of resources and useful links

DNA: Asking other family members to test

So far in this introduction to DNA for genealogy we’ve looked at what autosomal DNA is and how we use it in genealogical research, and we’ve looked at the very important issue of potentially unexpected results and the ethical considerations flowing from that. It was essential to cover the latter two issues before progressing to today’s topic: asking our nearest and dearest if they would be prepared to take a DNA test to help with our research.

A quick review of how we use autosomal DNA for genealogy
As previously discussed, the point of establishing how much of your autosomal DNA you share with a second cousin, fourth cousin, third cousin once removed, etc is not the joy of knowing how much DNA you share with this former stranger.  The point is that by finding someone you match at this estimated level you are being guided to the number of generations you need to go back to find your Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA). If the amount of shared autosomal DNA, expressed as ‘centiMorgans’ (cM) suggests you are roughly 3rd cousins, then you would expect to find your MRCA at roughly great great grandparent level.  As mentioned in previous posts, it may be one generation closer or one generation further back, but it will be thereabouts.  Armed with that information, you look at both your family trees to locate the common ancestor.  Then, having found your MRCA, and ensured all research is correct to that point on both trees:

  • you know your tree is correct to that point
  • you know you have a biological link to these ancestors (there are no events which would cause a break in the biological link)
  • should you come across another DNA cousin who matches the two of you, you have a pretty good idea where to look for this new match.

It isn’t always as straightforward as this.  You or your new cousins might not have got as far back as that in your tree building.  As mentioned in my previous post on unexpected results, one of you might have no tree at all, as a result of adoption or unknown paternity.  There are also other issues that might complicate this which I’ll cover in a later post.  But for now, at this introductory level, we’ll stick with a basic scenario with everything going smoothly.  The important point is that, knowing where you and your new cousins share common ancestry, you can start to allocate them to a particular branch of your tree, and work on the basis that other testers who also match the three of you will also link to you on that branch.  Bearing in mind that we each have sixteen great great grandparents and 32 GGG grandparents, this will save you a lot of unneccesary work.

Why would we ask another family member to test?
When we ask a specific, known family member to test, we use their results in the same way: It helps us to sort more distant common matches into specific lines on our own tree.  However, since these are our close family members, and since every one of them will have inherited some DNA from our common ancestors that we didn’t, their test results will extend our ‘reach’.  Exactly how they will do this depends on their precise relationship to us.

Essentially the rule is:

  • Your direct line (parents, grandparents, etc) will produce stronger, better, DNA matches but limiting to an increasingly specific part of your tree with each older generation.
  • Your own siblings will have inherited much of the same DNA as you, but also a lot of different DNA.  Although their results will be of no use at all in guiding you to a specific part of your tree (because you have the same parents, grandparents, etc), the parts of their DNA you didn’t inherit will effectively provide you with more DNA matches.
  • Sibling of previous generations (your mother’s brother, your grandfather’s sister, etc) will combine the benefits of the first two categories, but the results will be a bit weaker than testing your direct line – which of course is often no longer possible.

Let’s look at each type of relationship in more detail.

Sibling
If you have one or more full siblings, you know that all of your DNA and all of their DNA comes from the same two people: your mother and father.  However although like you, your sibling will have received half their DNA from your mother and half from your father, unless you are identical twins they will not have received exactly the same DNA as you did.  (Key point: don’t bother asking your identical twin to test)

I can illustrate all this with reference to my own brother.

In my first post about autosomal DNA we looked at the Shared centiMorgan Project.  Click the image below to see it full size on Blaine T Bettinger’s website.

This shows that the average shared DNA with a full sibling is 2613cM, but it could be anything between 1613 and 3488.  My brother and I share 2616cM.  This is what proves we are full siblings.  What interests me, though, is all the bits of his DNA that I don’t share: they are the reason I asked him to take a test.  Since we are clearly full siblings, anyone who shares DNA with him is also my blood relative even if we haven’t inherited any of the same DNA.  Therefore I can use my brother’s DNA results and the trees of his matches as an extension of my own, to confirm and develop my own tree.  Their Most Recent Common Ancestors are my Most Recent Common Ancestors too.  It’s just that we haven’t inherited the same DNA from those ancestors.

If this is new to you you’ll be surprised at how many people can share a decent amount of DNA with one sibling and none at all with another.  After each other, the top matches for both my brother and me on Ancestry are:
A with whom I share 189cM but my brother shares only 102cM
B with whom I share 144cM but my brother shares 153cM
After them our next highest matches are completely different.
C with whom I share 51cM doesn’t show as a match to my brother.  In fact C is our 4th cousin two times over – we share two sets of 3xG grandparents.
Looking at our matches on MyHeritage, four of my brother’s top ten matches (all of them cM matches in the 50s) do not match me at all.

You can see how my brother’s results give me more information and more clues about my own ancestry.  If you have more than one sibling and they are all happy to take a DNA test to help with your research, so much the better!

*****

While full siblings give you extra ‘horizontal’ reach, every other close family member will help you in a different way: they help narrow down to one part of your tree where you and any DNA cousin you share actually match.  Siblings won’t do this because in terms of your direct lineage, everything is identical.

Parent
There are two advantages to having a parent’s DNA results:

  • First, since we inherit 50% of our DNA from each parent, it follows that we have only 50% of the DNA of each one.  This means that your parents’ DNA is closer to previous generations and will include the other 50% that didn’t pass to you.  You might show as a second cousin once removed to a match but your parent will be a full second cousin.  Because of all this, they will have more and better matches, with more shared centiMorgans.  As an example, one of my DNA cousins currently has 321 matches on Ancestry at 4th cousin or closer, whereas her mother has 511.  If her father were also still alive and willing to test, and supposing he had a similar number of matches, that would effectively transform their daughter’s 321 matches into about 1000 better ones.
  • Second, even if only one parent tests this will help you to narrow down any future match by 50%.  If you have your mother’s test results and your new DNA cousin doesn’t match your mother then your shared common ancestors are on your father’s side.  This will help save you a lot of time searching for your connection.

Grandparent
If you’re lucky enough to have a grandparent who is able and willing to take a DNA test for you the same applies as for your parents.  Not only will their results narrow down any matches to a specific quarter of your tree, but their DNA will be even closer to previous generations.  You may match another tester at fourth cousin level, but your grandparent will be a second cousin twice removed – a much stronger and clearer DNA match.

Key point: it always makes sense to test the oldest generation

Aunt or uncle
If you’re able to test a sibling of either parent this will enable you to narrow down any shared matches to one side of your tree or the other, just as your own parent’s test results would.  However, bearing in mind that siblings don’t inherit exactly the same DNA, your aunt or uncle would also extend the reach of your parent’s results horizontally, in the same way that your own sibling would for you.

Your aunt or uncle who is the half-sibling of your parent
This will have the same effect as a grandparent.  Since only one of your grandparents is the parent of your half-aunt or half-uncle, anyone matching the two of you has to be from that specific grandparent’s line.  However, for reasons outlined above, if you had the option to test your half-aunt/uncle or the actual grandparent who is that person’s parent, you should choose the grandparent.  This would provide the same information to help you narrow down matches to a specific quarter of your tree, but their match would be closer to past generations and therefore better.

Half sibling 
Your own half sibling’s test results will help in the same way as your shared parent’s results.  They will help you to narrow down a match to either your maternal or your paternal line.  However, for reasons outlined above, if a parent is still available and willing to test, their results will be better for you.

Cousin
Your cousin, being the child of your parent’s full sibling, will help you to narrow down shared matches to one side of your tree. On the one hand, your own parent will give you better information.  On the other hand, since your cousin’s parent’s DNA will not be identical to your own parent’s, they might extend your reach horizontally on this line, just as your own sibling would.  Even better, though, to test your actual aunt or uncle.

Slightly more distant relations, e.g. second cousin
In reality, unless you have a very close extended family, you are unlikely to pay for your second cousin to take a DNA test.  However, they might have tested of their own volition, and in the absence of any of the above family members, a second cousin’s results can be very helpful in narrowing a match down to a specific quarter of your tree.  You and they are the great grandchildren of the same couple, therefore any other tester who matches the two of you will probably be further back along that same line. 

Key point: Your own son or daughter’s test results will not help you
Your own child’s test results will not add anything to your DNA research, since they have inherited only 50% of your DNA and are obviously one generation further removed from all your ancestors.  On the other hand if they are interested in their ancestry, your own test results will help them to narrow down to one or other side of their tree, just as your own parents would help you.

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If all this was new to you I hope, by now, you have a basic understanding of how DNA testing can enhance your family research.  If you’re interested in taking a test, my next post will provide an overview of the five main testing companies.  After that, there will be more to say, but we’ll take a break from DNA for a while.

*****

Edited August 2020
My posts about DNA are aimed at complete beginners and aim to provide information in manageable chunks, each post building on previous ones. Click [here] to read all of them in order, or to dip in and out as you wish. You’ll also find lots of resources and useful links

DNA testing: Ethical considerations

In my last post we looked at the possibility of unexpected information when we receive the results of our autosomal DNA test, and the importance of being fully aware of this as a possibility before we consent or ask others to consent to the test.  We noted that ‘unexpected results’ might take the form of finding our own parentage or descent from recent generations is not supported by the DNA.  Alternatively, the results might show that we are most definitely biologically linked to our parents and grandparents, but that someone else is too – someone of whom we had no knowledge.

Both findings can be upsetting at least and devastating at worst.  As a member of online genealogy groups, I occasionally see posts from distressed group members, formerly so excited to receive their DNA results but now trying to come to terms with the fact that ‘Dad’ is not really father, or ‘Granddad’ is not really grandfather.  What I say is this: the man you knew as your Dad is still your Dad.  The Granddad who loved you is still your Granddad.  You were meant to have this connection, even if biologically he’s not part of you.  But now you have another ancestral line to research too – one that might reveal other fascinating stories and might help you feel ‘complete’, even answer some questions you had about yourself, like where your dimples or your violet-blue eyes came from.  We might even call it your ‘nature’ tree and your ‘nurture’ tree: both have made you who you are.

Again, through online genealogy groups, I know of group members experiencing conflict within their own families regarding digging up the past and poking about in people’s lives.  My view is that if this is a hobby you love and from which you derive much pleasure and mental stimulation, then you should do it, but it’s important to do so in a way that respects the feelings and sensitivities of those who wish you wouldn’t.  Although no skeletons have been revealed in my own DNA testing, my documentary research has uncovered stories that I simply couldn’t have shared with my parents and grandparents.  In some cases the difference in sensitivities might be a generational thing: certain things were not discussed, were considered shameful and kept secret.  In other cases it might simply be a question of proximity to the subject of the story: the great grandfather who died long before we were born was our own parent’s grandfather, and may have been much loved and best left that way.  How much more sensitive, then, if the story relates to an extra-marital affair, the proof of which is now before you in the form of a match at second cousin.  It’s simply a matter of being sensitive to the needs and sensibilities of others.

On the other hand, in the case of an extra-marital affair – an illegitimate or adopted child – there are the needs of that person to consider too.  I said in my last post that I will always do what I can to help a good DNA match to track down their parents.  In one case the biological father turned out to be a (deceased) cousin of one of my parents – although there were several brothers in the family and without further DNA testing I can’t say which one.  In those circumstances I had no qualms about making available the name of the family to my ‘new’ second cousin.  It would in any case be available via other online trees.  It’s true that in those ‘Long Lost Family’ programmes on TV there is generally a happy ending of sorts.  Indeed, an acquaintance of mine was so happy to learn that a long-ago pre-marital relationship of her late father had produced a child, now to be welcomed into the family as a long-lost half-brother, that she circulated an email to everyone on her contacts list, with photographs of the new family group, highlighting the very strong family resemblance.

However, the reality isn’t always like that.  A biological mother who put her child up for adoption might have spent fifty years thinking of her lost child but it may be a secret she fully intends to take to her grave.  She may be ashamed to admit the truth to her family.  I know someone who, a few days after his mother’s death, discovered the birth certificate of his long-ago adopted half-sister in his mother’s handbag.  In life, she had never had the courage to tell her children, yet clearly that firstborn child had never been far from her thoughts, and she wanted her remaining children to know.

I’m aware that I’m writing about all this from the perspective of someone who has not experienced it.  For someone who is that child or perhaps their half-sibling, the reality is very different.  No one should feel like a ‘dirty little secret’.  This article, although US-based, deals with the issue from the viewpoint of test-takers who have learned they are the result of an affair, rape or sperm donation, and provides some information about secret groups on Facebook where those affected can gather and speak to others in their position.

You and I may not agree on the best way forward in these sensitive situations.  There is, indeed, no agreed ‘Code of Practice’ for how to proceed from this point forwards.  Since 2015 a set of Genetic Genealogy Standards have been in place, but these are intended to provide ethical and usage standards for the genealogical community to follow when purchasing, recommending, sharing, or writing about the results of DNA testing for ancestry.  They don’t specifically relate to how, or whether, to tell Aunt Maggie her late husband fathered a child ten years into their marriage.

Clearly, then, the implications of DNA testing are wide.  Whether we test only ourselves or a handful of other consenting family members too, the fact remains that the results – in terms of what is revealed through the people we match with – will reveal information not only about ourselves but could impact on other close family members who have not tested – who possibly would not have consented to a test even if we had asked them.  Nevertheless, the genie is now out of the bottle: as of 2018, more than 26 million worldwide had taken such a test and it is estimated that by the end of next year the figure may be approaching 100 million.

Our responsibility is to recognise all of the above, and to proceed with integrity and discretion.  It’s likely that we will all have different approaches to these ethical issues.  Yours may not be the same as mine, and in any case it makes sense to adjust our approach depending on the people involved.  But with all this in mind, I’ve put together this checkpoint of ethical considerations:

  • We must respect privacy and confidentiality.
  • We must recognise that not everyone will respond to stories with the same outlook as our own, and we must be sensitive to the specific needs and feelings of each.
  • Before asking another family member to test for us, we must ensure they are fully aware of the possibility of unexpected results.  (I’ll explain in my next post why it can be useful to ask family members to test.)  At the time of asking them to do so we should clarify if they would want to be informed of any unexpected results, and undertake to respect their wishes.
  • Even if the key players in this scenario are now deceased, their actions may have an impact on others who are still living.  Their needs must be taken into consideration too.
  • If we decide to tell others of unexpected findings – such as the discovery of a child or half-sibling, we must be discrete, operate on a need-to-know basis, and leave it to the person or people involved to decide if this new information is to be shared more widely.
  • We should let sleeping dogs lie: If I see evidence of misattributed parentage in another person’s tree (and there is definitely one who matches a person whose DNA I manage) I would never tell that person unless they got in touch to investigate the connection.

If you have never considered DNA testing to help with your family research, I hope this post and the previous two have helped you to think through the issues and decide if you want to do so.  The final two posts in this ‘whirlwind introduction’ to DNA testing will look at the benefits of asking other family members to test, and finally at which companies provide DNA testing for genealogy.

*****

Edited August 2020
My posts about DNA are aimed at complete beginners and aim to provide information in manageable chunks, each post building on previous ones. Click [here] to read all of them in order, or to dip in and out as you wish. You’ll also find lots of resources and useful links

DNA: Unexpected test results

In my last post we looked at autosomal DNA – what it is, and a little about how we can use the results of a DNA test to help us progress our family trees.  Before going any further let’s consider an important issue that should be borne in mind from the outset when deciding whether to test.

The fact is that DNA testing can reveal unexpected, uncomfortable information.  It is statistically unlikely, but we should be aware of the possibility when taking a test, and be prepared to deal with the consequences.  Our family trees may be meticulously researched, fastidiously sourced and referenced and the very model of genealogical good practice.  But DNA test results may reveal what birth registration and baptismal documents cannot.

These unexpected results might fall into two categories:

Non-paternity event or misattributed parentage event in your tree
The term ‘non-paternity event’ (NPE) is used in genetic genealogy to refer to any situation where DNA testing shows the biological father is not as expected.  It may be that the man we called ‘Dad’ is not in fact our biological father.  Or perhaps DNA testing of a close family member such as a sibling indicates that they have a different father.  It could even be that neither parent is biologically linked, or perhaps the DNA connections change a generation or so further back.  To allow for situations where the mother is not as expected, the term term ‘misattributed parentage event’ is often used as an alternative to ‘NPE’.

We need to keep this possibility in perspective.  FTDNA, one of the main DNA testing companies, assess the NPE rate at about 1-2% per generation. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki page on NPEs cites a number of studies, some of which have concluded that historical NPE rates were much higher than more recent times.  In other words, you’re more likely to find an NPE some generations back.  However with the passing of generations,  the cumulative impact of these per-generation statistics is significant.

When faced with evidence of an NPE it’s important not to jump to conclusions.  The above-mentioned ISOGG page sets out a whole range of possible explanations for how this might have come about, including:

  • Illegitimacy outside marriage
  • Infidelity within marriage
  • Remarriage, in which the child takes the surname of the step-father, perhaps after the untimely death of the biological father (e.g. in wartime)
  • Rape
  • Adoption, including hidden or informal adoption
  • Intentional or unintentional baby swap
  • Unintentional embryo swap
  • Sperm donation

It is entirely possible that your DNA test has uncovered a well-kept secret – even, in the case of unintentional baby/ embryo swap, a fact unknown even to the parents.

Another tester’s NPE or parents unknown that impacts on your family or ancestry
More likely is the possibility that your own DNA results will be absolutely in order, but that another tester’s are not.  Although my own DNA test has uncovered no direct NPEs, in my wider tree I’m aware of nineteenth century illegitimacy before marriage; infidelity or possibly rape (a child conceived while the husband was away at war); and informal adoption and remarriage following the death in WW1 of the father, resulting in the registering of the child in the name of the second husband.  An unexpected high match between you and another tester may indicate that their biological father is someone connected with you.  More likely yet, in my experience, is that some of your matches will have tested specifically in the hope of finding their own missing father, grandfather or even (if they are adopted) both biological parents.  You may find that quite a few of the people who match you but have no tree linked to their DNA results will fall into this category.  I will always do whatever I can to help any of my good matches in this situation.

How does the DNA reveal this?
Think back to the Shared centiMorgan Project chart in my last post.
We noted that we can expect to share 3485cM with a parent, but that the parameters are 2376-3720.  If my DNA results reveal a match of that size then there is no doubt: either I am that person’s parent or they are my parent.  Conversely, if my father or a close family member on his side (my aunt, uncle, cousin) has tested but we share no DNA at all, then either this is not my biological father or he is not a full sibling to this family member.  If, on the other hand, a completely unknown person matches me at half sibling or at cousin level, then one of my parents or one of my aunts or uncles had a child about whom I had no knowledge.

It is unlikely to be as straightforward as that. More often, our match will be more distant – the amount of shared cM will be smaller.  What we have to do is work with what we already know, gradually homing in on where we connect.  For example if I don’t match with A’s mother, then even though A has no paternal tree at all we can assume I do match with the father.  If A matches with my maternal cousin as well as with me, then we know it is my maternal side where we match.

In a sense, in this type of situation we turn the search on its head.  As outlined in my last post, the usual way to use DNA test results is to look at the amount of DNA shared (expressed as centiMorgans, the higher the number the closer the match) and then to look in our trees for our Most Recent Common Ancestor – Bingo! End of search!  Clearly, if our match has no tree and no knowledge at all of their birth family we can’t do this.  We can only progress if there are other people who match both of us.  Let’s say A is seeking their birth parents, and A and I match at around second cousin.  B and C also match the two of us but at around third or fourth cousin level.  If I can find in my own tree where B, C and I share an ancestor, there’s a good chance that A and I will have common ancestors one or two generations closer to me on that same line.  However, unlike me, A’s goal is not to identify which set of great grandparents they got that segment of DNA from.  What they want to know is the name of an unknown parent.  Therefore, if we can identify our own Most Recent Common Ancestor, they will now need to work forward from that, to identify their biological parent.  In the above example, on the basis of information available from our shared DNA, I can’t tell them that, but I can say that their unknown parent is probably the grandchild of these two specific people who are my own great grandparents, and that has narrowed down their search quite considerably.  It may take a while but eventually, as more people test we may have more testers matching both of us at a closer level, and we can continue to narrow down the possibilities.

Undoubtedly the above scenarios raise a number of ethical issues. We will consider them in my next post.

*****

Edited August 2020
My posts about DNA are aimed at complete beginners and aim to provide information in manageable chunks, each post building on previous ones. Click [here] to read all of them in order, or to dip in and out as you wish. You’ll also find lots of resources and useful links