Unless we limit ourselves to transcripts of documents, sooner or later every genealogist has to confront the challenge of archaic handwriting styles. Later eighteenth and nineteenth century handwriting styles generally pose no difficulty for me (although I’m aware from online genealogy groups that this is not universal) but earlier than that it’s a whole new ball game.
Developments in handwriting were not an accidental process. Different styles of writing were devised to meet changing needs. Hence ‘Textura’, the beautiful calligraphic script we know from illuminated manuscripts, was very formal and tidy, but the clearly separated letters were themselves composed of separate strokes, the pen being lifted from the page after each stroke. Beautiful it may have been, but the process was very slow and painstaking.
The evolution of cursive handwriting in the middle ages was a significant development, making the process of writing quicker and more efficient. Formed with as few strokes of the pen as possible, the whole purpose of the new cursive texts was the speedy copying of official documents or records. The earliest cursive script we’re likely to see in parish registers is ‘Secretary Hand’. Imported to England from France and Italy in the fourteenth century, its use became widespread in the late fifteenth to seventeenth centuries – exactly the period when the keeping of registers of baptisms, marriages and burials became mandatory.
The handwriting example above is definitely one of the easier examples I’ve seen. It was written by my 8xG grandfather in 1678.
The difficulties of reading Secretary hand can include:
- It was popular at the same time as other cursive scripts, including ‘Italic’ (which I find easier to read) although the two hands were used for different purposes. By the mid seventeenth century a hybrid style developed incorporating aspects of these two and what was to become the (much easier to read) eighteenth century ‘running’ hand. We’re likely to see examples of all of this as we look at parish registers and other documents of the period and on occasion we will need to try to decipher them all.
- There were of course unique individual handwriting styles and idiosyncrasies, just as we have today
- The formation of certain letters can actually look like other letters to our modern eyes
- Writers still used the now obsolete Anglo-Saxon letter y, or þ (known as ‘thorn’) to represent a ‘th’ sound, the long s, which we can easily confuse with an f, and sometimes the Middle English letter ȝ, easily confused with a z but in fact known as yogh, and used where modern English has gh or y.
- Words may be abbreviated or contracted
- Some syllables or letter combinations were replaced with hieroglyphs
- Writers were not consistent in the use of the above, even in the same document or the same sentence
- Spellings were not uniform, and certainly were not the same as today’s
- In the case of surnames and placenames, the scribe may have written down what he ‘heard’
However, there is lots of help available online. I’ve put together a list of resources from respected bodies you might find useful when trying to decipher Secretary and other sixteenth and seventeenth century scripts:
Basic guidance, abbreviations and editorial conventions for reading Secretary Hand from Folger Shakespeare Library
Recognising different letter forms of medieval scripts from University of Nottingham Manuscripts and Special Collections
Secretary Hand alphabet examples from FamilySearch
Or if you’re really determined, and have the time to devote to it, here are a few online courses, made freely available:
English Handwriting Online 1500-1700 from University of Cambridge
Palaeography tutorial & exercises from University of Oxford
Palaeography: reading old handwriting 1500 – 1800: A practical online tutorial from The National Archives
Early Modern Scottish Paleaography: a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) that I’ve just completed in preparation for commencing the Advanced Genealogy Diploma. The benefit of this course is that the basics of paleography are introduced via a series of mini ‘programmes’ (videos) by The paleography is intertwined with Scottish history, and is therefore doubly useful for those with Scottish roots. However, these sections can be speed-read if you wish. If you do have Scottish roots you might be interested in using your new skills to help in transcribing the kirk session records of Govan Old. There is a link to learn more about this right at the end of the course.